Monday, February 24, 2020
Food in the Pentateuch - Essay Example It is difficult for us in a modern society with such variety of choices and convenience associated with our consumption of food to fully appreciate the day-to-day labor that was required just to get enough food to stay alive in these ancient societies. For many in ancient civilizations, hunger and starvation were only a drought or a poor harvest away. A lack of medicine for herds of animals meant the spread of disease meant flocks could be decimated in a short span of time. These precarious circumstances mad food an especially powerful subject to use symbolically. The recognition that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure or displeasure could be measured by good or bad harvests links the earthly need for physical sustenance to the divine nature of God. In many ways, food is the perfect medium to use for symbolic teaching of great spiritual truths. From the very beginning of creation, food has been used as a symbol of the forbidden and the allowable, the sacred and the profane. The Garden of Eden, created for the first man and woman to inhabit was a place brimming with food and fruit of all sorts. Adam and Eve were invited by God to partake of any fruit they wished, save one. Adam in this sense is portrayed as a sort of farmer without labor. Fruit was produced spontaneously in the garden as a symbol of Gods immense goodness and his love for the creatures of the creation. The guidance given to the first man and woman were to live freely in the garden and to avoid only the fruit of the tree that would give Adam and Eve knowledge of good and bad. Without the partaking of this so-called forbidden fruit, Adam and Even would have dwelt eternally in a state of close association with God. However, their existence would have been one without growth and without true free will. They would have remained as obedient children, never underst anding the true nature of obedience or
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Scientific advances on Cloning - Research Paper Example The Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute, along with his colleagues, announced on February 23, 1996 they had cloned a sheep by using a ground-technique. The method involved transplanting genetic matter from an adult sheep into a hollowed-out egg, an egg that had its nucleus removed. Ã¢â¬Å"The researchers fused the adult udder cell with an (egg) that was ready to be fertilized, but taken from a different sheep. The scientists had previously removed the nucleus from the (egg) using an electrical current to fuse it with the udder cell.Ã¢â¬ (Barnes, 2012). This sequence instigated cell division. The resulting embryo was then implanted into another sheep who acted as the surrogate-mother. The secret to this methodÃ¢â¬â¢s success was making the nucleus of the donorÃ¢â¬â¢s udder cell Ã¢â¬Å"silentÃ¢â¬ so it would quit performing as it was originally intended and then reprogrammed it to act as an embryonic cell. That embryo would become Dolly; a sheep with three Ã ¢â¬Å"mothersÃ¢â¬ involved but only related biologically to the one that donated an udder cell. Consequently, Dolly is an exact genetic reproduction of the donor-cell sheep.Previous cloning experiments that used embryonic cells created a being that was the identical offspring of two parents instead of being an exact genetic duplicate of just one adult. Science successful copied a mammal from one parent for the first time. For nearly half a century, the system of relocating a nucleus from a somatic egg cell using nuclei from non-human embryonic cell continued. It was demonstrated that, in theory, up until the birth of Dolly that genetic material contained in somatic cells could maintain the potential to guide development of a healthy and fertile adult mammal. Scientists had thought once cellular differentiation materializes, this procedure would be reversible, able to change into another type of cell. However, until Dolly was born, the ability to do so was unproved. Ã¢â¬Å"The dem onstration that nuclei from cells derived from an adult animal could be reprogrammed, or that the full genetic complement of such a cell could be reactivated well into the chronological life of the cell, is what sets the results of this experiment apart from prior workÃ¢â¬ (Di Bernadino, 1997). From the mid-Ã¢â¬Ë80Ã¢â¬â¢s scientists frequently cloned mammals, specifically cattle and sheep, from embryonic cells but the cloning of Dolly was the first time an animal developed to maturity by using a somatic cell nucleus from a single animal. This innovative method of cloning included three new developments: Ã¢â¬Å"
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Pilgrimage Analysis Essay Pilgrimage is the name given to a spiritual journey. There is more depth to a physical journey. It is about what it means spiritually to the individual. It is an emotional and spiritual journey. It is a journey from the heart showing love for God. The definition of true is loyal so a true pilgrimage is a journey you take to show loyalty to God. To become a pilgrim, the person must leave their home and undertake a sacred journey, which may confirm and strengthen their personal beliefs in their religion. People can go on this journey alone or in a community. Many places in the world are very exceptional for Christians. Some are places where Jesus lived, such as Nazareth. Other places are special because a holy person is buried there. Many Christians go on their pilgrimages to Lourdes and Rome. People go on journeys to these special, religious places to order their lives in terms of what is good, beautiful and true. Christianity is a journey into Christ a journey that mirrors every Christian mystery through life. As a Christian grows and changes, so he or she tries to move nearer to Christ. A believers ultimate hope is to be completely at one with him in eternity, when on the journey, Christians may use the physical act of pilgrimage to help them to focus on the need for spiritual nourishment. People go to these places of worship as here they believe they can fulfil their beliefs, and show their devotion to their religion. They are making a holy journey. We call those who go on these special journeys pilgrims. They do not have to do this, there is nothing in the Bible which tells Christians that they must make pilgrimages. It is their decision made freely. Many people regard Lourdes, as a place of miracles and of wonderful and unexplainable events. A young girl called Bernadette had a vision of the Virgin Mary countless times and in these visions, Bernadette, was told how to find a natural spring. Many Christians go as they are ill and hope to be cured. But others go for the same reasons that they go to church. Another reason to go on a pilgrimage is to feel some of the holiness of the place and become closer to God. By becoming closer to God, we can feel like better Christians and this should help us to become better Christians and do as God intended us. People also go on pilgrimage to seek Gods forgiveness for the sins that they have committed. Some people go to ask and receive Gods help, like people who have an illness or are disabled in some way, may ask for a cure to heal them. People can also ask to be healed spiritually, as coming to their pilgrimage centre may make them realise that they have not been leading a good Christian life and it may make them change into good Christians. Rome is another main pilgrimage centres for millions of Catholics. In Rome, there are 7 pilgrim churches founded when the Roman Empire became Christian. People have been coming to Rome on a pilgrimage for the past 1600 years. The Church of St. Peter was built on top of the tomb of St. Peter who was the leader of the 12 apostles and the first ever Pope. St Pauls church was built on top of the tomb of St. Paul, the great Christian missionary, who wrote most of the epistles in the New Testament. Rome is the home of the Pope and the Vatican is the headquarters of the Catholic Church. A pilgrimage to Rome is very special as it is the home of the Roman Catholic Church. Lourdes is a Pilgrimage centre which is much more recent, but it still receives over 2 million pilgrims a year. Water is a very special part of Lourdes a here there are the baths where you are fully immersed in Holy Water. You feel as if you are being cleansed of your sins, like a believers baptism as you are fully immersed in water like Jesus was fully immersed in the water of the river in Jordan when he was baptised by John the Baptist. Question 2 Many Christians believe that it is very important to go on a pilgrimage as it helps them develop into better Christians. As they go to the special, religious centres they become closer to God and begin to understand the religion more. By praying to God they become much closer, and their beliefs about the religion are greatly strengthened. The pilgrimage centres really have a great affect on the person spiritually. By getting away from their normal lives Christians who go on pilgrimages to Lourdes or Rome are filled with a special feeling of belonging when they go to a pilgrimage centre. At these special places Christians feel much closer to God as they are at special places where religious events have occurred in the past. Some people go on pilgrimages as groups, where they can help others who are less fortunate than themselves. Certain groups take children who arent so fortunate on pilgrimages to places like Lourdes and let them become closer to God. By doing this they are helping Jesus, as Jesus said anything you do to your neighbour you do unto me. People who may have turned away from the religion could also have their spirits renewed and change as a person to being a good Christian. Some people also feel that they can see their vocation when they come to a pilgrimage centre, which shows the huge affect that pilgrimage centres have on people. When people come on pilgrimages they leave homes behind and decide to forget all comforts and put God first. They are showing by going to these pilgrimage centres, their devotion to God and that their main aim in life is to be a good Christian rather than make money and have fun. They show that their main aim is on God and making God happy. Christians also come to Lourdes and Rome to ask questions, to ask questions about Christianity and how they can become a better Christian and make God happy. Christians also enjoy coming together and going on pilgrimages as then they are surrounded by many people who are like them, all on a journey to strengthen their religious beliefs and become better Christians. Christians also come to pilgrimage centres as they wish to ask God for his forgiveness for all there sins, and by coming on a long journey to a pilgrimage centre they can show to God that they truly are sorry for their sins and that they want to be better Christians. They can also show that God is most important to them as they are coming on a journey to show their devotion to him. The spring St. Bernadette had found was holy and had great healing powers. Now many people visit Lourdes and drink or bathe in the holy water. Many people have miraculously been cured of illness after visiting Lourdes. In Lourdes there have been many specialised things made to accommodate people suffering illness or those who have disability. The people who a go there to pray for themselves and to pray for others. Some pilgrims, who go there, volunteer their time when they are not praying to people who are less able than them. I have been to Lourdes myself and when I was there the feeling of Holiness was unbelievable. Just being there made me feel as If I was cleansed of all my sins, and I truly felt closer to God and being their strengthened my passion towards my religious beliefs. Question 3 After being to Lourdes myself I feel that the pilgrimage centre has become too commercialised. So many people are trying to make money out of the religiously spectacular area it has taken some of the special feeling away from visiting Lourdes. The point of going on a pilgrimage is to get away from our normal lives where all we think about is work and money and spend time concentrating on God and putting our religion first. By setting up shops around the area we are tempted to purchase items, which takes away the precious feelings of visiting Lourdes. The area around Lourdes is meant to be tranquil and peaceful and reflect the image of Christianity, but having loads of shops around the area provokes the town to turn into a busy, messy area where crime can increase and there is a lot of disrespect for the holiness of the pilgrimage centre. However, if a person does visit such a spiritually healing place like Lourdes naturally they would like to be able to take home with them a souvenir to remind them of their time in the area which changed them so much into a better Christian. Many people purchase items which are very special and can be used as aids to prayer, which makes them better Christians as this would bring them closer to God. If these special items do bring them closer to God then they are sacred items and are very precious. When I went to Lourdes I did purchase special items from shops in the area which I have used as aids to prayer and have in my house looking over me, protecting me. But I still feel that the area around Lourdes has become to commercialised as there are so many shops and some of the items sold in the shops are not very sacred and can bring down the preciousness of Mary and Jesus as they are not very respectful.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Wilderness in Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Surfacing, Mary AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s Land of Little Rain, and Gary SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s The Practice of the Wild Journeys into the wilderness test far more than the physical boundaries of the human traveler. Twentieth century wilderness authors move beyond the traditional travel-tour approach where nature is an external diversion from everyday life. Instead, nature becomes a catalyst for knowing our internal wilderness and our universal connections to all living things. In Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Surfacing, Mary AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s Land of Little Rain, and Gary SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s The Practice of the Wild, Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬ mirrors each narrator: what the narrators ultimately discover in the wilderness reflects what needs they bring to it. Their points of view, expectations, and awareness all determine their experiences of the wild and Ã¢â¬Å"self.Ã¢â¬ Ultimately, however, each work reveals that the experience of nature need not be restricted only to Ã¢â¬Å"self-discovery,Ã¢â¬ but may well expand to an understanding of the spiritual Ã¢â¬Å"family self.Ã¢â¬ AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological novel describes the return journey by its narrator from a self-centered, urban existence to the Canadian wilderness of her youth, where she finds the meaning of family and her role in it. Though not overtly psychological, Mary AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s intense devotion to the life and people of her desert community suggests these have become replacements for her own, unsuccessful attempts at conventional family life. Finally, Gary SnyderÃ¢â¬â¢s kinship with nature exemplifies a life integrated in all aspectsÃ¢â¬âa union that merges the practical, psychological, and spiritual into what may be called the Ã¢â¬Å"cosmicÃ¢â¬ family. Birth of Family Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Surfacing describes the heroine/narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s phy... ...our experiences: the progress of our consciousness. This progress resolves issues of the self and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual past, heals our psychic pain, and releases us from powerlessness and fear. By accepting the wilderness in ourselves we will understand the wilderness in each other and our connectedness. Nature functions as catalyst, as guide, as test, as teacher. Then opening the spiritual window to grace, we ultimately realize the possibility of being fully human. References Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing (New York: Fawcett Crest, 1972). Austin, Mary. Stories from the Country of Lost Borders. Ed. Marjorie Pryse (New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1987). Pryse, Marjorie. "Introduction" to Stories from the Country of Lost Borders by Mary Austin. (New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1987). Snyder, Gary. The Practice of the Wild (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990).
Monday, January 13, 2020
Alleviating Urban Blight Mariah Beatty-Adams Kent School of Social Work University of Louisville Urban Blight in Louisville Louisville is known for internationally for the annual derby, that the upper-class and wealthy attend as a group for recreation, and entertainment. It is a time that economically, that the city is in its element. Millions of dollars are spent on derby paraphernalia, horse paraphernalia and alcohol for the masses. The city is becomes a city that never sleeps. Patrons of the derby are attracted to the large three malls, the hustle and vibrancy of the Ã¢â¬Å"hipsterÃ¢â¬ mini- town of Bardstown Rd. and are seen at all the touristic options throughout town; especially those that are directly related to our cityÃ¢â¬â¢s most prized possession, Muhammad Ali. Although patrons are excited to learn about MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s hometown, no one frequents past 9th street, an area that is infamously known for crime, and drugs. West Louisville is an area of the city that is kn own for not only crime that is birth from the area, but also falling victim to urban blight, similar to other urban and inner city areas of large cities nationally and globally.According to the US Census, out of more than 5000 properties in the five neighborhoods that make up West Louisville, 22. 1% of the homes are vacant or abandoned. An area that used to thrive with African American businesses, and industrial powerhouses that were less than environmentally friendly, has fell victim to the counter- productive action of urban renewal. There are only a slew of fast food restaurants, and an even larger number of liquor stores; unfortunately leading to the area become a food desert.An area where residents cannot acquire the ideal nutrients that are set by the FDA that every person should digest to remain healthy and active. However minorities are often limited to processed package foods, due to their only being one grocery store in the area. The only businesses there are seen in the a rea are barbershops, beauty salons, payday loan businesses, and a handful of makeshift retail stores. Leaving several residents without means for an income, becoming even more impoverished. Out of the 61,251 people inhabiting West Louisville, on average 13. 4% are unemployed.This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take account the several workers who are underemployed, struggling to make ends meet in an area that is not known for upward mobility. A change must be brought to the area that does not have a negative impact on the inhabitants, but a solution that will bring in a sense of promise and change the lives of the people who live in the constant fear that their local government has truly forgot about. In the year of 1957, Louisville constituents voted on a $5 million urban renewal project. Urban renewal refers to the public efforts to bring life into the aging and decaying inner cities across that nation.The term was heavily used and introduced to cities following World War II. Unfortunately the pa th to urban renewal is too destroy what is deemed destructive. Several businesses and public housing homes were tore down leaving the inhabitants to fend for themselves and business owners on the streets with their dreams in stride. Instead of working with already strong foundations and beautiful architecture, these pieces of history were demolished, destroying the sense of community with the debris caused by destruction.Thrown up in the place of these businesses and homes, were new pieces of architecture, still leaving the cause of West LouisvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s blight unharmed. Ethical Analysis and Ideologies of Current Solution Urban renewal in Louisville embraces the private good over the well-being of the public. Similar to the theory presented in the analysis titled The Economics and Ethics of Private Property by Hans-Hermann Hoppe, where he goes even far as to describe in great detail the fallacies of the public good.Results of the destruction caused by urban renewal have shadows o f the historical ideologies that our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s closed mind, white superiority foundation. Ideologies such as Individualism, Independence and the Protestant Work Ethic. Where the results have left the residents of the community on their own(individualism) The protestant work ethic is founded on the vision of wealth. Ã¢â¬Å"Hard work and wealth are signs of personal and moral worthÃ¢â¬ unfortunately minorities the west end work hard and have no wealth, nor anything to show for their work efforts. Those who are poor are considered as not having a proper or sufficient work ethic and are often considered inferiorÃ¢â¬ . (Enoch,2012) When constituents are living in poverty and are feeling forgotten, you have not worried about those who are affected, or an ends to a mean. Nor did the urban renewal ordinance use funds to access the source of urban blight or the lack of income in the community. Unemployment and lack of economy of the area are the crooks behind the hundreds of desol ate and abandoned homes all over the West end.Non- profit organizations, such as the Metropolitan Housing Coalition, struggle to combat urban decay; yet have not found viable and visual solutions to the social issue. Proposed Solution To combat the social issue of urban decay, we must educate the residents of the area, many residents who are unhappy with their environment; yet have not been given the voice to help create and foster change in their own community. For change to be truly progressive, the need for change must be truly felt by those who are affected.Education is a key source of change. We must hear and allow residents to speak up on the changes that they want to be seen, the problem with social issues are that the activists are often times people who are not living in the environment that they work to change. We have no idea what changes are truly needed from residents, and they may be unaware that the changes that they need to live are in fact available or tangible. Wit h a united need for change, activists and groups such as MHC, need to work with residents to establish a sense of community.Areas throughout the west end and their inhabitants are often portrayed in the news and media as enemies, several people who grew up in neighboring areas are seen slain, both victims of death and self-hate. If we are working for the same change, how would that be tangible without a sense of unity? To establish education and also a sense of community, there needs to be monthly West End hall meetings, where Advisory boards from each of the five neighborhoods in West Louisville speak amongst each other and activists on the changes that need to be seen and together produce a set of actions to complete the changes needed.Also establish classes in simple do-it- yourself projects that could be done in abandoned homes to rebuild them together, and also throw park clean up parties to get rid of the trash and debris that are in the park and renovate parks that are deemed desolate. To get youth involved establish youth advisory boards, similar to Pact in Action, to speak on the changes they would see and provide the youth with the resources and voice needed for their educational career and changes. To nd the downward mobility that has only been available to several of the residents. Also coordinate neighborhood block parties and barbeques so it can be a sense of community that could not only be felt but seen by residents. To reestablish a flow of economy in the neighborhoods, and reduce the money going to fast food restaurants and liquor stores; have communities and neighborhoods raise money to purchase abandoned pieces of land that are full of garbage and debris, and turn them into a community garden.It would slowly but surely put an end to the food desert that the West has grown to be and reestablish healthy habits within the community. Every weekend there could be an organized farmer market between the neighborhoods where residents could sell the food they hand grew, and supplement a form of income in the several homes that are in need. Possibly establishing a shopping district, similar to the ones that were owned by African Americans in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s and 60Ã¢â¬â¢s, to give residents a steady means of income.Instead of selling and advertising areas such as downtown, and east Louisville as business gems, sell west Louisville to possible business prospects by stating the cheap rent rates and the vast number of available lots and homes that can be Ã¢â¬Å"flippedÃ¢â¬ , instead of spending a fortune on new buildings and offices. Establish a working relationship with business prospects and the community to introduce prospective employees. Working relationships should be facilitated by the Council for a compassionate city, the mayorÃ¢â¬â¢s office, and also the governorÃ¢â¬â¢s office.The governor could benefit by acquiring skills and knowledge to produce the same action plans in cities in the state that are also victims o f white flight and urban blight. To efficiently reduce and hopefully alleviate the social issue. Several people who have lived in the city of Louisville have not ventured past 9th street. I believe it is due to the 7th street connector and 9th street connector or Ã¢â¬Å"Great Wall of LouisvilleÃ¢â¬ as I affectionately refer to it. Which is constructed IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure was constructed at a time where city ordinances were processed to segregate African Americans from white neighborhoods and areas.As a suggestion from Louisville Mag, this construction needs to be demolished similar to the homes and businesses of the impoverished to allow the West End community and the other areas to not only allow economic growth but a sense of community that can lead to resources in the renovation of west Louisville. However in its opposite it is proposed that there is a connection from the water front and connectors from the west end. Possibly leading to shopping districts to the west end. Also pro vide access with two lane roads and to businesses. Ethical Analysis of Proposed Solution/ TheoryThese actions adopt both deontological theories and Rawlsian liberalism. Deontological theories believe that you do not harm individuals especially minorities; and is about moral obligations. Meaning it is based on the community as a whole and will not allow an individual to fall underneath the economical cracks. According to Rawlsian Liberalism, each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. (the Liberty Principle) Meaning every person should have the right to healthy food, and the basic necessities for living.Families in the area currently have a high rate of unemployment, and canÃ¢â¬â¢t acquire the things they need on the lack of income, or no income they have. With these plans the conditions of both will improve, may not be the first day but one day. Work Cited 1. moss, J. (2013, march 13). West of ninth. Louis ville Magazine, Retrieved from http://loumag. epubxp. com/i/111400/30 2. Stemle, C. (2013, march 13) So close, but so far. Louisville Magazine, retrieved from http://loumag. epubxp. com 3. Jimenez, J. (2011). Social policy and social change. Long Beach: Sage publications.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
- Ã¢â¬Å"The central principle of investment is to go contrary to the general opinion on the grounds that if everyone agreed about its merit, the investment is inevitably too dear, and therefore unattractive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â John Maynard Keynes Many money managers feel they must distinguish themselves as either Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"valueÃ¢â¬ investors. While an apparently benign distinction, this simple act can have unintended consequences. This article will address conventional definitions of growth and value and then look to the market oracles for a dose of worldly wisdom. Value investing: The strategy of selecting stocks that trade for less than their intrinsic values. Value investors actively seek stocks of companies that they believe the market hasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦So, when is it appropriate to distinguish between growth and value? Another very famous investor, Peter Lynch, pioneered a hybrid of growth and value investing with what is now commonly referred to as a growth at a reasonable price (GARP) strategy. Here we see that the two approaches can be synthesized in the way Buffett describes. Successful growth investing, which more often than not will bring with it longer holding periods, requires two distinct elements: 1) The business must have a legitimate long-term competitive advantage. 2) The business most possess the ability to grow earnings on a long-term basis. Conversely, to be successful in the long term, it is incumbent upon the value investor to sell average companies (Like company B) when the market price approaches or exceeds fair value. All investors need to pay attention to the price they pay for equities. Companies that hold large competitive advantages and exhibit steady growth can be poor growth propositions if they are Ã¢â¬Å"priced to perfectionÃ¢â¬ just as Ã¢â¬Ëvalue propositionsÃ¢â¬â¢ must incorporate a significant disparity between price and discerned value. All investments: growth, value or other, should be bought with a Margin of Safety. Conclusion: The stock market may be likened to the field of horse racing. Most punters are focused on picking the best horse in the race. The error here is in assuming that the best horse comes with the best odds. QuiteShow MoreRelatedThe Growth Of A Country s Economy By David Hume And Adam Smith Essay1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesevaluate the overall performance of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, it has been widely examined and analyzed by economists throughout history. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
Unit 4 Written Assignment: By: Alysia Pietrangelo Professor CJ509: Comparative Criminal Justice Systems September 1, 2011 With so many different cultural and historical perspectives, it can change the way the criminal justice system works. Two types of criminal justice systems in which bring a lot of historical and cultural perspective include Iraq and Italy. Both countries also have legal tradition in which help in the way the criminal justice system works. In addition, both politics and legal issues can also cause the criminal justice system to change. However, the answer to the question relies on how this all does play in to the criminal justice systems for both Iraq and Italy. Beginning with Iraq, there was manyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The different types of crime which happen in an Islamic country depend on the cruel and unusual punishment. Hudad crimes (apostasy, revolt against the ruler, theft, highway robbery, adultery, slander and drinking alcohol) carry mandatory penalties such as the amputation of the hands and feet, flogging and even death. Quesas crimes (murder, voluntary and i nvoluntary killing, and intentional and unintentional physical injury) involve sanctions of retaliation or compensation for the victim or his/her family. If any other offenses have been committed and there is not a penalty, they are in the category of TaÃ¢â¬â¢azir and the judge is then given the discretion to determine the penalty of such offenses (Bassiouni, 1982). Since many in Iraq feel the vote for some position are fixed during elections, Iraqis can be punished for speaking out. If someone does they themselves and their families are at a great risk of being persecuted, since they are not loyal to the government or Saddam Hussein. Therefore, the political roles do influence how the criminal system works in Iraq. In addition, many culture and historical factors also played a role for Iraq to follow the Islamic legal tradition. While Iraq has a very unique criminal justice system with many cultural and historical aspects, along with much of Iraq (very hard justice system to understand) in turmoil atShow MoreRelatedComparative Criminal Justice Systems5160 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pageslike to say that it is virtually impossible to inset all the solutions to a nations criminal justice problems in a one page (per county) summary. With the diverse nature of all 4 countries, to be able to Ã¢â¬Å"flyÃ¢â¬ into a foreign land at the request of the leader, and be given Ã¢â¬Å"Carte BlancÃ¢â¬ to handle their criminal justice problem is about as impossible as implementing all that is needed to fix their criminal justice system issues within the perimeters of this paper. 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